If ur a book nerd, please do enjoy this light read nwn I'll be editing and making it pretty as time goes by~~ <3 More pictures, fonts, and things of that nature. But-- still, enjoy. :3c
[center [i "Back then, if we could have heard each other's voices, everything would have been so much better." -- Shouya Ishida, A Silent Voice]]
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[h3 [center |The Three Pillars -- Persuasion|]]
“Rhetorical appeals” or “ethical strategies” use a form of language which is found to hold an impressive effect on the audience. Due to the aspect of the approach being ‘rhetoric’, what is being said may lack sincerity or meaningful content. When it comes to the use of persuasion, there are three distinct modes:
[i - Ethos
Aristotle, a well renowned philosopher, has made a comment on the three main forms of persuasion (ethos, pathos, and logos) being, “The ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.” (The Art of Rhetoric) Aristotle is the same philosopher who has set acknowledgement on these three distinct bases of persuasion, more formally known as “The three pillars”.
It should be known there are more than these three main components that can be used when influencing another to their beliefs/desires. However, these three are the most prominent.
[b Q: Have you heard of any other forms of persuasion based tactics before?]
[h3 [center |Ethos|]]
An ethos standpoint is one which appeals to an authority or shows aspects which are found ‘trustworthy’ within a speaker. In order to perform a good ethos, the person in question must prove their loyalty to their targeted audience. The person is able to do this by becoming specialized in their field of interest (think of a professor, someone with a degree -- classified “experts”) or share/introduce proven experts in their respective field of interest.
A lack of these may cause the audience to lose interest in what the speaker is saying, forming doubt for them (the audience).Trustworthiness is known for showing a sense of rapport; the audience may not know what is going to be said next, but there is inclination to believe what the speaker is going to say.
In order to gain rapport, there is a need to gain a sense of trustworthiness. Three main attributes which induce a sense of loyalty are:
[i Good Sense
Good moral character
[b Q: How would you describe these attributes individually? In what ways do you express these three qualities? Do you express these qualities more in certain situations or with other people?
Q: When have you seen individuals less likely to question your commentary over beliefs? When have you seen them raise questions?
Q: Out of all these traits, which of these do you think are the most potent in showing a sense of trustworthiness?
Q: Have you seen anyone around you exhibit a sense of ethos? How would you describe them? How does it compare to your thoughts over traits of loyalty?]
[h3 [center |Pathos|]]
The second mode of persuasion, pathos, is the ability to appeal to another through emotions. This strategy is most prominent when in use with groups, however, it may fall apart when being used with a single person instead. For a pathos based approach, the speaker needs to offer a message with their targeted audience’s values in one shape or another.
To increase a sense of pathos in speech, one must hold good intuition. This is used to hone in on the audience’s emotions for what is being said, whether it is to make a positive or negative feeling surface from them over a matter. An example is making the audience hold anger towards an injustice and why it may be foreseen as negative. Vice versa, another example is to make the targeted audience feel excitement and content for participating in a movement, with it holding positive intent.
To increase pathos in writing, have a play on imagery to make statements come off as more exaggerated; it is found critical when in use with the audience’s aspirations/beliefs.
Ethos and pathos are known to compliment one another. As one deals with the moral compass and appearance one takes, while pathos is holding influence over another’s emotions. If the speaker is to take a more pathos based approach rather than ethos, there will be a less sense of control in speech/writing, as there would be more influence being done to emotions. This overall makes it harder for one to direct and orientate a conversation.
[b Q: How would you describe and know the differences between these emotions?]
[i Anger vs Calm
Friendship vs Hatred
Fear vs Confidence
Shame vs Shameless
Pity vs Indignation
Envy vs Emulation]
[b Q: How could you use these in conversation?
Q: Do you know anyone who does good pathos based approaches? Why were they so impactful to you?]
[h3 [center |Logos|]]
Finally, logos holds an appeal to logic, and because of this, it brings forth a larger ethos due to appearing more knowledgeable. It is best to be attentive to what is being said when taking an informational based approach, as miscontext, false, or inaccurate information will lead listeners astray.
There are three methods of logical based persuasion:
[i Deductive argument
[right [i Deductive]]
A deductive argument holds a sound, logical approach, giving the speaker what is perceived as both a confident and assertive based premise. These statements will hold either a true or false notion to the original claim, offering conclusions. Validity and soundness are both defined and observed through statements to their respective conclusions, using easy to grasp logic. This is where general statements are made and the individual is able to hone in and make more specific, analytical claims, allowing testing of said claims.
[right [i Inductive]]
Similar to a deductive based approach, the individual holds information and crafts hypotheses over what information is displayed to them. It doesn’t guarantee the claims/ideas made will be true, however, due to revolving around speculation.This approach holds narrow, small bits of information to make a more generalized claim.
[right [i Abductive]]
This approach holds a set of information or data, allowing conclusions to be drawn from the information which is given. The conclusions crafted are dependent on the validity of information which is being offered. Abductive approaches or reasoning based examples are doctors diagnosing someone, or a judge being given both sides of an argument before dictating someone as being either innocent or guilty.
[b Q: Based off these three approaches, which argument style form do you usually use? Which of these three are found as the most impactful for you?]
[h3 [center |Conclusion|]]
When it comes to ways of persuasion, there are many, diverse forms one can undertake and perform. However, knowing that these three are most commonly used will show when others are making appeals, along with how one would be able to appeal to their person in question, as well.
[b Q: What other modes of persuasion exist? How have you seen a person use this specific form?
Q: With all this information gathered, how do you, personally, amplify your sense of ethos? How do you see others do this?]
“The Art of Rhetoric.” The Art of Rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Student Project, www.mesacc.edu/~bruwn09481/Syllabi/documents/htm/ArtRetoric/index.htm.
Bennis, Tony. Dark Psychology. Tony Bennis, 2019.
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